Yerevan

Yerevan is one of the oldest cities in the world․ It was founded in 782 BC by Urartu king Argishti 1st and was named Erebuni. Yerevan is 29 years older than Rome.
Yerevan was the first city in the Soviet Union, for which a General Plan was developed. The General Plan developed by the architect academician Alexander Tamanyan and was approved in 1924: it was designed for 150000. In the course of time the administrative area of the city increased 5 times. Construction of Yerevan started: it was built by basalt, tuff, granite and marble. The most widely used construction material was rosy tuff. Since this construction material gave a unique vividness and specific tint to the city, Yerevan was called "Rose city". During next 70 years the area of the city was enlarged even more.
On September 21, 1921 Yerevan became not only a capital of the independent Republic of Armenia, but also of all Armenian people spread all over the world. Yerevan is one of the world's  oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan river, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country.

Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex

The Armenian Genocide memorial complex is Armenia's official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built in 1967 on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd in Yerevan. The architect of the complex is Arthur Tarkhanyan and Sashur Kalashyan. In 1965, the Soviet Armenian population demanded that a memorial monument be constructed, because Armenians in other countries had already commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the Genocide. On April 24th, massive demonstrations were organized in the central squares of the Soviet Armenian cities as well as in Yerevan. Encouraged by public demand, on March 16, 1965 the Soviet-Armenian Government decided to build a monument eternalizing the memory of the victims of the Genocide. Every year on April 24—the Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day—thousands of Armenians gather at the memorial to commemorate the victims of the genocide and put flowers around the eternal flame. Over the years, a wide range of politicians, artists, musician, athletes, and religious figures all over the world have visited the memorial. The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute was opened in 1995.

Mother Armenia monument

Mother Armenia is a female personification of Armenia. Her most public visual rendering is a monumental statue in Victory Park overlooking the capital city of Yerevan. The current statue replaces a monumental statue of General Secretary Joseph Stalin that was created as a victory memorial for World War II. In spring 1962, the statue of Stalin was removed, with one soldier being killed and many injured during the process, and replaced by the Mother Armenia statue, designed by Ara Harutyunyan. "Mother Armenia" has a height of 22 meters, thus making the overall height of the monument 52 meters, including the pedestal. The statue is built of hammered copper while the pedestal-museum is of basalt. The Mother Armenia statue symbolizes peace through strength. It can remind viewers of some of the prominent female figures in Armenian history, such as Sose Mayrig and others, who took up arms to help their husbands in their clashes with Turkish troops and Kurdish irregulars. It also recalls the important status and value attributed to the older female members of an Armenian family.

Yerevan Opera Theater

Armenian National Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet after Alexander Spendiaryan in Yerevan was officially opened on 20 January 1933, with Alexander Spendiaryan's Almast opera performance. The opera building was designed by the Armenian architect Alexander Tamanian. It consists of two concert halls: the Aram Khatchaturian concert hall with 1,400 seats and the Alexander Spendiaryan Opera and Ballet National Theater with 1,200 seats.

Yerevan Cascade

The Cascade, is a giant stairway in Yerevan. It links the downtown area of Yerevan with the Monument neighborhood. The construction of the cascade designed by architects Jim Torosyan, Aslan Mkhitaryan, Sargis Gurzadyan was launched in 1971 and completed in 1980. Inside the Cascade, underneath the exterior steps is a couple of escalators going the length of the complex. There are also rooms connected to some of the landings along the escalators which comprise the Cafesjian Museum of Art. The exterior of cascade, in addition to stairs has multiple levels with fountains and sculptures. The stairs afford walkers unobstructed views of central Yerevan and Mount Ararat. At the bottom of the complex, near the Moscow street is situated the statue of the architect Alexander Tamanyan, who is the author of the master plan of the city. Cascade is one of the most beloved places of people living in Yerevan and, of course, of tourist.

Erebuni Fortress

Erebuni Fortress, also known as Arin Berd is an Urartian fortified city, located in Yerevan. It is situated at an height of 1017 m. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of the vast kingdom. The name Yerevan itself is derived from Erebuni. Erebuni was founded by Urartian King Argishti I (r. ca. 785–753 BC) in 782 BC. It was built on top of a hill called Arin Berd overlooking the Arax River Valley to serve as a military stronghold to protect the kingdom's northern borders. By "Forbes" magazine Erebuni is one of 9 the most ancient fortresses in the world. It has been described as being "designed as a great administrative and religious center, a fully royal capital. In the autumn of 1950, an archaeological expedition led by Konstantine Hovhannisyan discovered an inscription at Arin Berd dedicated to the city's founding which was carved during Argishti's reign. Two other identical inscriptions have been found at the citadel of Erebuni. The inscription reads: "By the greatness of the God Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, built this mighty stronghold and proclaimed it Erebuni for the glory of Biainili (Urartu) and to instill fear among the king's enemies. Argishti says: The land was a desert, before the great works I accomplished upon it. By the greatness of Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, is a mighty king, king of Biainili, and ruler of Tushpa. 

Yerevan Brandy Company

Yerevan Brandy Company is the leading enterprise of Armenia for the production of alcoholic beverages. Its main brand name is Ararat. Currently the company boasts a large following, particularly in Russia, as well as in Ukraine and Belarus. The Russian market accounts for about 85% of exports. Yerevan Brandy Company was founded in 1887 by a wealthy 1st guild merchant Nerses Tairyants with the help of his cousin Vasily Tayrov. Tairyants began distilling brandy at the winery he had founded ten years earlier inside the former fortress of Yerevan. The enterprise reached its hey-day in 1898, when it was acquired by Nikolay Shustov, a well-known Russian vodka and liqueur producer. Now YBC is owned and operated by the French giant Pernod Ricard. Among the famous admirers of Armenian brandy were Winston Churchill, Agatha Christie and Frank Sinatra.

Matenadaran

The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts, commonly referred to as the Matenadaran, is a repository of ancient manuscripts, research institute and museum in Yerevan. It holds a collection of nearly 17,000 manuscripts and 30,000 other documents which cover a wide array of subjects such as historiography, geography, philosophy, grammar, art history, medicine and science in Armenian and many other languages. Matenadaran was built in 1921 on the base of Echmiadzin's matenadaran. The Armenian collection at the Matenadaran is abundantly rich in manuscripts dealing in all fields of the humanities, but particularly historiography and philosophy. The collection is also composed of 2,500 Armenian illuminated manuscripts, which include such prominent examples as the Echmiadzin Gospel (989) and the Mugni Gospels (1060). Another prominent manuscript in the collection is the Homilies of Mush, written in the years 1200-1202 A.D. in the Avak Monastery in Yerzenka (modern-day Erzincan, Turkey), which measures 55.3 cm by 70.5 cm (21.8 inches by 27.8 inches), weighs 27.5 kg (60.6 lbs.), and contains 603 calf skin parchment pages.

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