Brief Information

Geography

The Republic of Armenia is located in the South Caucasus, bordered by Georgia from the north, Iran from the south, Azerbaijan from the north-east and the south-west and Turkey from the west. Armenia has no access to the sea. The capital of the Republic of Armenia is Yerevan which called the Rose city for its beautiful reddish tuff stone buildings.
Armenia is divided into ten marzes (provinces) and Yerevan.

Marzes                    City (Marz center)
Aragatsotn              Ashatarak
Ararat                     Artashat
Armavir                   Armavir
Vayots dzor            Yeghegnadzor
Gegxahkunik          Gavar
Kotayk                    Hrazdan
Lori                         Vanadzor
Syunik                     Kapan
Tavush                    Ijevan
Shirak                     Gyumri
   
The relief is mainly mountainous with lots of rivers and few forests. The territory of the Republic of Armenia is 300 000 square km, which is 1,800 meters above the sea level. The highest point is the mount Aragats (4090 meters) and the lowest is 400 meters above the sea level. Mount Ararat (5165 meter) is the highest mountain in region and the Armenian highland. The mountain came under Turkish control since 1920. Lake Sevan is the largest lake in Armenia. It is 1900 meter above the sea level with average depth 26,8 m and maximum depth 80 m. Armenia has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. Armenia's population is estimated 3 million and over 98 % of the population are ethnic Armenias.                                                                                                                                                                                                          

History

The first political units were established in Armenian highland yet in the second millennium BC. One of them was Urartu, which gathered together different tribes in IX c. B.C.. Even all of them spoke with different languages but they were under pressure the same state. During long centuries  Urartu was stayed one of the most powerful state in the South-East Asia. The "Armenia" was mentioned in history since second century BC. According to sources of Armenian Mythology Hayk is the founder of the Armenian nation. Because of that reason we, Armenians, call ourselves "Hay" and our country "Hayastan". More than two millenniums Armenia has kept his sovereignty but periodically was under the reign of Roma, Parsia, Byzantine, Parthia and Arabia. Since 1375 more than 450 years Armenians lived under Turkian and Persian influence. The most horrible page of Armenian history was Armenian Genocide during 1915-1916, which took place in Eastern Turkey and as a result 1.5 million Armenians were murdered. Over 600.000 Armenians forcibly removed to the deserts of Mesopotamia where the vast majority died. From 1936 Armenian became the part of USSR. Unfortunately today only a little part of Armenian Highland has stayed. Historical center of former Armenia was the territory surrounding the mount Ararat and lake Van, both of them are now under Turkey influence. The capital of Armenia Yerevan is surrounded with mountains and is not far from the border with Turkey. It is one of the oldest cities in the world. It was founded as Erebuni fortress in 782 BC by king Argishti I.

Religion

Christianity was introduced into Armenia during the first century AD by two of Christ's disciples Bartholomew and Taddeus, due to them Armeninan church become Apostolic. During the reign of King Trdat 3rd and under the patriarchal leadership of Grigor the Illuminator Christianity adopted as a state religion in 301 AD. Armenia became the first country in the world who adopted Christianity as a state religion.

Culture & sport

History of Armenina culture comes from 6-5 centurys BC and is an inheritor of Urartu's culture. Armenia was one of the ancient world culture centers. Passing his hard way to the independence Armenia managed to save his unique culture, although long period Armenia was under influence of Media, Macedina, Persia, Ottoman Turkay, was a bone of contention between Greek and Rome, Arabs incursions. In Armenian art and culture often can be met the mythological and later also biblical themes. It is more significant the Armenian architectures investment into the sphere of Christian architecture in all over the world. Both the Amenian architecture and sculpture differs with it's uniqueness and exclusiveness. More significant are Armenian khachkars, which are vertically erected gravestones with ornamentally carved cross. Armenia is also famous with its manuscripts, unique literature, historiography, carpet weaving, music and so on.
There are many Aremnian popular culture and sports representatives all over the world. Among them are architects family Balyan (Dolmabahçe, Bylerbei, Chirag castles, Ortakoy Mosque, etc.), Alexander Tamanyan, painters, John Tyler, Martirots Saryan, composers and musicians, Aram Khachatryan, Tigran Hamasyan, Cher Sarkisian, Charles Aznavour, SOAD band, photograph Yousuf Karshe (author of Winston Churchill, Nehru Javakharlal, Jean Sibelius, Marian Anderson, Heminguei and other famous people portraits), aircraft designer Artyom Mikoyan, sportsmen Andre Agassi (tennis), David Nalbandian (tennis), Henrik Mkhitaryan (football), Yuriy Djorkaeff (football), Garry Kasparov (chess), Levon Aharonian (chess), Arthur Abraham (Box) and others.

Armenian language

Armenian language is a separate branch of the Indo-European language family. It is one of the ancient languages in that language family. There are ancient Armenian manuscripts saved from 5th century. The invention of present-day Armenian alphabet is traditionally credited to the monk St. Mesrop Mashtots, who created the alphabet consisting of 36 signs in 405 AD, after in the 12th century  three new letters were added and the contemporary Armenian alphabet has became 39 signs.

Armenian cuisine

Armenian national cuisine traditions come from very ancient times. Armenian cuisine is one of the oldest cuisines in Europe and Caucuses. It is known that the Armenians are aware of the processes of fermentation and bread baking even 2500 years ago. The preparation traditions of many Armenian dishes, which have history of centuries remain the same till today. Among the most famous of them are BBQ, dolma, kyufta, matsun, Armenian national bread lavash, gata, ghapama  and so on.
Armenian national bread lavash was inscribed on UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Polity

The Republic of Armenia is a sovereign, democratic, social state governed by rule of law. The state power is exercised in conformity with the Constitution and the laws based on the principle of the separation and balance of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. The President of the Republic of Armenia is the head of the state. The President of the Republic is elected by the citizens of the Republic of Armenia for a five year term of office. The same person may not be elected for the post of the President of the Republic for more than two consecutive terms. Legislative power in the Republic of Armenia is vested in the National Assembly. The National Assembly shall consist of one hundred and thirty one deputies. The National Assembly is elected for a term of five years.

Currency

The national currency of Armenia is dram. It was issued on November 22, 1993. 1 dram is equal to 100 lumas, which is not in circulation nowadays. In translation from Armenian dram means money. Now are officially in circulation 1000, 5000, 10000, 20000, 50000, 100000 banknotes. All bills have a high degree of protection. On the banknotes are featured famous Armenian scientists, artists, as well as cultural and historical monuments.

Visa

Follow the link to get more information and details about the rules of getting the Armenian visa.

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